Algerian journal of Biosciences 2024-07-05T15:09:32+01:00 Zeid Alia Open Journal Systems <p>Algerian journal of Biosciences (AJB) is published by Department of biology faculty of sciences Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life University of Echahid Hamma Lakhdar, Algeria. AJB is a biannually, international, open access, journal dedicated to various disciplines of biology, Biology, Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. AJB is an international means of interaction between researchers, academics and employees in various areas of neighborhoods. AJB publishes manuscripts (Original research, review articles, Short communication, Case reports, and letter to editor) on original work, either experimental or theoretical.</p> <p><strong>ISSN-E:</strong> 2716-9375 (Online Version). <span style="font-weight: bolder;">ISSN-P:</span>2773-2916 (Print Version).</p> Morpho-molecular identification of fungi associated with nutmeg (Myristica fragrans h.) seeds 2024-07-05T15:09:32+01:00 Ikechi-Nwogu Gloria Blessing Adanta Odogwu, Onome Oghenekevwe Akpojotor <table width="661"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="472"> <p>Nutmeg is a spice made from the seeds of an evergreen tree<em> Myristica fragrans</em>. Nutmeg has rich health benefits such as the ability to relieve pain, strengthen cognitive function, detoxify the body, enhance skin appearance and slow aging process, improve dental conditions, stimulate digestion and relieves bloating, diarrhea, indigestion and constipation and also improves sleep by decreasing activity of stress-related enzymes. It has been noted that the conventional way of storing nutmeg seeds is insufficient to stop fungi from growing on them, even though they only live for two to four years. The common fungal infections causing nutmeg seed post-harvest degradation were isolated and identified through a study. The nutmeg seeds were obtained in Choba Market located in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Fungal isolates were collected and morphologically identified. The DNA of the most common fungal isolate, NS-2A was molecularly characterized using Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1F and 4R) molecular markers. <em>Aspergillus niger</em> was identified as the NS-2A isolate by morphological examinations. The isolates' DNA had a molecular weight of over 500 base pairs. The isolates' DNA sequences showed 99% similar to <em>Aspergillus niger</em> based on sequence similarity. These findings showed that <em>Aspergillus </em><em>niger</em> is the causal fungal pathogen of post-harvest rot of nutmeg. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to access the relationship between the isolates obtained from this study. This study has provided information on some of the fungal organisms harboured in nutmeg. It is anticipated that this result will provide information for disease control approach for alleviating the post-harvest losses of nutmeg caused by <em>Aspergillus </em><em>niger</em> and provide a foundation for further study of possible harm of consuming diseased nutmeg.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Copyright (c) Allelopathic Influence of Rosmarinus officinalis .L Aqueous Extracts on Barley Plants 2024-06-25T17:10:15+01:00 Muoftah A M Bataw <p><em>This is an investigation of Allelopathic Influence of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Aqueous Extracts on Barley Plants. All the samples are prepared from Libyan varieties of Rosmarinus officinalis specimens were gathered, air-dried, and ground, yielding a 20% aqueous extract. Dilutions (16%, 12%, 8%, 4%) and control (0% distilled water) were prepared. Dilution followed the equation C2×V2=C1×V1 After a week in the lab with two irrigations, root and stem lengths were measured. Statistical analyses, including one-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons, were conducted using SPSS 28 to interpret the extract's impact. The results of the experiment revealed a significant difference in Barley root measurements among the experimental conditions, as evidenced by a significant F-statistic (F(4, 10) = 15.58, p &lt; .001). The Between Groups comparison, with a sum of squares of 38.85 and 4 degrees of freedom, resulted in a mean square of 9.71. Results also revealed a significant difference in barley stem measurement among the experimental conditions, as indicated by a highly significant F-statistic (F(4, 10) = 45.777, p &lt; .001). These differences indicate that the presence of Rosmarinus officinal Weed extract, under various concentrations and conditions, distinctly influenced (negatively) the growth parameters of barley plants</em></p> Copyright (c) Anti-inflammatory activity of camel whey immunoglobulins: An in vitro study 2024-06-21T17:19:15+01:00 Lubna Abdallah Asmaa Abusnober Israa Abusnober Jenan Hussain Jana Herzallah <p><em>This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of camel whey immunoglobulins. To achieve that, four in vitro assays which are protein denaturation assay, proteinase inhibition assay, heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced assays were performed. Based on the obtained results, it is clearly noted that camel whey immunoglobulins exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect, especially against protein denaturation. Moreover, camel whey immunoglobulins showed a significant effect on decreasing protein denaturation and inhibiting proteinase activity in the studied concentration range (25-100 mg/mL). Furthermore, camel whey immunoglobulins stabilized red blood cell membranes in response to hypotonic-induced hemolysis significantly at all examined concentrations, while their ability to resist heat induced hemolysis was only significant at 75 and 100 mg/mL concentrations. In conclusion, camel whey immunoglobulin concentrate had the ability to act as an anti-inflammatory agent in vitro. All observed bioactivities can reduce the harmful effects of several inflammatory diseases.&nbsp;</em></p> Copyright (c) Mrs DETECTION OF PHYTOBIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF CINNAMON (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) BARK AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY 2024-05-28T09:43:50+01:00 Asmau Sulaiman <p>This research investigated the antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Cinnamon(<em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum</em>) bark against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolated from clinical samples of patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Medical Center, Zaria. The work was aimed in determining the antibacterial effect of Cinnamon extract against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus.</em> Isolates each of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were collected and were sub cultured on Eosin Methylene Blue agar and Mannitol Salt Agar respectively, which were then subjected to microscopy and biochemical characterization for confirmation. The ethanolic extract of <em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum </em>was extracted from powder of the stem bark of the plant using ethanol and the aqueous extract using water. The phytochemical screening was carried out which revealed the presence of constituents in the plant. Pure culture of the bacterial isolates was subjected to antibacterial susceptibility testing using agar well diffusion method. The findings of this study revealed that the bacterial isolates were susceptible to the ethanolic extract only and zones of inhibition were proportional to the concentration of the extract. This study portrayed ethanolic extract of Cinnamon as an antibacterial agent and serves as a pointer for pharmaceutical industries producing effective antibacterial drugs of plant sources.</p> Copyright (c) Arbuscular Mycorrhiza as an Essential Ecotechnological Tool: A Critical Review of Literature on the Role of AMF in the Sustainability of Cultivation and Conservation of Palms 2024-05-28T09:17:51+01:00 Joseph George Ray Sreeja T Nadesan <p>Palms are an ecologically and economically significant family of plants, including many crops. Sound knowledge of the ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) association in plants is essential to the sustainable cultivation of crops and the conservation of sensitive species. The current Review is the first-ever comprehensive critical analysis of literature on AMF in the sustainable cultivation and conservation of palms, which reveals the gaps in existing studies and explains the specific needs of future investigations on AMF in Palms. AMF in only 2% of the known palms explored so far; a majority of wild palms and cultivated palms in many different regions remain unexplored. However, currently, a high diversity of 85 species of AMF from about 43 palms are known. The beneficial roles of AMF in palms include boosting productivity, assisting in the in-vitro raising of seedlings, and providing immunity to diseases and environmental stress. However, the identification of external and internal variables crucial to AMF association in palms in the field, long-term monitoring of AMF's beneficial influence in palms, and experimental application of AMF from wild palms in cultivated palms are further required. Overall, AMF dependence, responsiveness, and effectiveness in palms also need thorough investigation in the future.</p> Copyright (c)