Algerian journal of Biosciences 2023-05-22T21:53:08+01:00 Zeid Alia Open Journal Systems <p>Algerian journal of Biosciences (AJB) is published by Department of biology faculty of sciences Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life University of Echahid Hamma Lakhdar, Algeria. AJB is a biannually, international, open access, journal dedicated to various disciplines of biology, Biology, Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. AJB is an international means of interaction between researchers, academics and employees in various areas of neighborhoods. AJB publishes manuscripts (Original research, review articles, Short communication, Case reports, and letter to editor) on original work, either experimental or theoretical.</p> <p><strong>ISSN-E:</strong> 2716-9375 (Online Version). <span style="font-weight: bolder;">ISSN-P:</span>2773-2916 (Print Version).</p> Molecular marker applied to genetic diversity analysis and genome - wide association studies for micronutrients in grains and biotic stresses traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 2023-05-22T21:53:08+01:00 Solange NYIRAGUHIRWA Valence Ndayisenga Zahra Grana Houda Hiddar <p>The cultivated barley (<em>Hordeum vulgare L</em>.) ranks the fourth most important cereal worldwide. It feeds animals, produces malt, and is used in the human diet. Yield increase and yield stability are the top barley breeding goal. However, diseases such as the Net form of Net blotch (NFNB) and powdery mildew (PM) reduce yield and grain quality. For barley destined for human consumption, micronutrients increase in grains, especially zinc and iron, is essential to alleviate malnutrition. Thus, breeders must select new loci and use them to develop higher-yielding, nutritious, and disease-resistant cultivars. This study reviews the importance of genetic diversity analysis using molecular markers and Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in barley improvement. Genetic diversity studies are crucial for conservation and utilization of barley germaplasm in plant breeding. Secondly, we discuss genome-wide association study (GWAS) uses to locate genomics regions associated with important barley traits such as yield and yield components trait, disease resistance to NFNB and PM, and micronutrients (Zn and Fe) content in grains. Significant markers ( SNP) identified in GWAS studies once validated in other experiments or populations, they can be converted into user-friendly markers and used to develop barley cultivars with improved quality and disease resistance via marker-assisted selection.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) In silico Profiling of Prolyl 4-hydroxylase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Vernonia amygdalina Del 2023-05-20T14:27:37+01:00 Omolola Soji-Omoniwa Sikemi Adejoke Omar Phoebe Adedamola Adewuyi <p>Prolyl 4 hydroxylases (P4H) are enzymes involved in collagen synthesis and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) regulation. Disruption of HIF-1 signaling has been implicated in diseases associated with delayed wound healing. Inhibitors of HIF-P4H therefore would be a promising target in promoting healing of chronic wounds. In this studies, 19 compounds from <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> Del. with reported varied pharmacological potentials were retrieved from PubChem database. These compounds were computationally docked into the active site of Prolyl-4-hydroxylase with Diethyl-PythiDC as the reference inhibitor of P4H, which was retrieved from alphafold2 database. This was done using Schrodinger software, Discovery studio visualizer and Swiss online ADME web tool. Prior to docking using Glide from maestro suite, the protein was subjected to protein preparation by addition of hydrogen and optimization of the protonation states of Histidine, Glutamine and Asparagine residues. Results showed that 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid with standard precision, high precision docking, and Molecular Mechanistic Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA) scores of -6.727 kCal/mol, -6.748 kCal/mol, and -57.030 kCal/mol was the best bioactive compound from <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>and the most promising inhibitor of P4H. Upon optimization, MMGBSA scores of -84.15, -84.28 and -90.08 respectively indicated optimized compounds 123, 71 and 178 as the best bioactive compounds possessing a more lower binding energy compared to Diethyl-PythiDC (-50.35), a known P4H inhibitor after optimization. Overall, compounds 123, 71 and 178 are worthy of further investigation for therapeutic purposes. This knowledge can be used to guide experimental investigation on <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>-derived compounds as potential P4H inhibitors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) Advances in research on the use of Brevundimonas to improve crop and soil fertility and for soil bioremediation: a review 2023-05-21T08:53:31+01:00 Souad Zaim Ahmed Amine Bekkar <p>Biofertilizers or biological fertilizers maintain soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilizing P and K, producing plant growth substances and antibiotics as well as biodegradation of organic matter in the soil that enriches the root rhizosphere. Microbial biofertilizers are eco-friendly and less expensive alternatives to chemical fertilizers. The key components of healthy soil are populations of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which play multiple beneficial and ecological roles in the rhizosphere soil. PGPR colonizes rhizosphere or plant roots, resulting in phytostimulation, biofertilization and biocontrol either directly and/or indirectly. Another important role of PGPR is its ability to decontaminate soils through a process called soil bioremediation. Recently, the known rhizobacteria environmentally friendly biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture are those belonging to <em>Brevundimonas</em> spp., which play a significant role in improving crop production and soil health.</p> Copyright (c) Antimicrobial Properties of Carbon Nanotube: A succinct Assessment 2023-05-21T08:48:23+01:00 Ikhazuagbe Ifijen <p>Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) particularly single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have been used in pharmacy and medicine for drug delivery systems in therapeutics since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Because carbon nanotubes have demonstrated the ability to transport a wide range of chemicals across membranes and into living cells, they have piqued interest in medicinal applications such as improved imaging, antimicrobial agents, tissue regeneration, and medication or gene delivery. Despite the abundance of evidence demonstrating the benefits of CNTs in terms of higher efficacy and fewer side effects, numerous recent studies have revealed unanticipated toxicities caused by CNTs. CNTs have recently gained a lot of attention for their antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial properties of carbon nanotubes, as well as their toxicity, are summarized and discussed in this mini review.</p> Copyright (c) The Impact of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on ROS Release Rate in Mice Organs: A Minireview 2023-05-21T08:44:58+01:00 Ikhazuagbe Ifijen Selina Ilunakan Omonmhenle <p>There has been a significant amount of research on the effects of exposing different vital mouse organs to cerium oxide nanoparticles, which has been documented in the literature. Many research looked at the impact of injecting cerium oxide nanoparticles into various organs, including the liver, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain. Nonetheless, there hasn't been a review study on this subject yet. So, taking into consideration CeO<sub>2</sub> NPs' susceptibility for oxidative stress, this study evaluates the known evidence of the potential effects of CeO<sub>2 </sub>NPs on a number of crucial organs of animals or people. According to some of the research we reviewed, administering CeO<sub>2</sub> NP can prevent the ROS levels in specific animal or human organs from rising sharply in response to certain traumas. Our understanding of CeO<sub>2</sub> NP behavior in vivo is deepened by their study, which also highlights CeO<sub>2</sub> NP's potential as a therapeutic anti-oxidant, particularly in conditions associated with elevated ROS. Some review studies hypothesized that exposure to CeO<sub>2</sub> NP would cause a sharp increase in local ROS levels, which might impair important organs in mammals like humans. According to these findings, oxidative stress, inflammation, and potential harm to the heart, lungs, liver, and other organs were all induced. A variety of factors, including surface functionalization, synthesis strategy, and reaction parameters of the CeO<sub>2</sub> NP, may be to blame for the differences in the conclusions reached by these investigations.</p> Copyright (c)